A Regenerative Thermal Oxidizer, also known as an RTO, is a type of air pollution control equipment designed to decompose volatile organic compounds (VOCs), hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), and other airborne solvents into innocuous CO2 and water vapor by heating the exhaust air to a very high temperature, over 1400°F.
An RTO consists of two or three towers which contain specialized thermal ceramic material, connected at the top by a high-temperature combustion chamber and direct-fired burner.
The basic operation of a Regenerative Thermal Oxidizer consists of four basic steps:
As the first tower cools and the second tower heats up, the direction of the air through the towers reverses periodically to recover the heat from the RTO burner.
Regenerative Thermal Oxidizers (RTOs) will oxidize:
RTOs have been installed for use in the following industries:
TKS has installed new Regenerative Thermal Oxidizers at Honda, TMMK, TMMTX, TMMI, TMMBC, TMMMS, Nissan, Subaru, Ford, and Kia.
Industrial process exhaust gas enters and is pushed through via in-line fan to the first chamber. The valve is open to accept incoming gas for treatment. The process gas move vertically through the ceramic media in chamber 1, absorbing waste heat stored in the ceramic media, and the incoming air is heated to approximately 1300°F. The air then travels into the combustion chamber, across the top of the tower, and reaches temperatures of 1500°F.
In the middle of the combustion chamber is a burner which is supplied with fresh air (oxygen source) via combustion blower and natural gas to supplement the combustion reaction to maintain the temperature set point. Process air that reaches Chamber 3 is fully combusted, clean air. It travels down chamber 3, releasing its heat to the ceramic media blocks. The pure, clean air exist the open valve and travels to the exhaust stack where it is emitted to atmosphere. In this design, chamber 2 is in purge mode and purges to the inlet air stream, upstream of the process inlet fan. Partially combusted air is purged via chamber 2.
The primary advantage of the RTO design is the ability to capture and re-use waste heat. Outgoing hot gases heat the ceramic media beds which then heat the incoming pollutant air. At >95% thermal efficiency, the RTO achieves more heat recovery than any other oxidizer.
Our in-house engineers perform advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to understand air flows inside the RTO towers and combustion chamber.
The RTO achieves consistently high destruction removal efficiencies (DREs), year-after-year during annual emissions permit evaluations.
After the RTO completes start-up, heat-up and reaches steady-state, if the incoming VOC concentration is greater than 5% LEL, the RTO is capable of sustaining the required heat set-point via combustion of the incoming VOCs alone. No supplementary natural gas is needed.
We offer low NOX burners with specialized controllers to monitor and adjust the precise air-to-fuel mixture to ensure a complete burner and avoid running too lean or too rich in the mixture. Having a precise mixture of air and fuel helps avoid the creation of NOX by-products.
Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) and HMI controls with digital data storage and retrieval.
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An RTO has become the standard go-to equipment for reliable treatment for harmful manufacturing air pollution emissions. Boasting the best up-time in the industry, an RTO also works on nearly every industrial by-product including solvents from paint, coatings, petroleum, oil & gas, food, printing, chemicals, pharmaceutical, ethanol, semiconductor, automotive, and more.
When tested for permitting, RTOs often exhibit destruction removal efficiencies of 95-99%.
Used in industry on exhaust air volumes as low as 5,000 CFM, RTOs can be produced for any volume of air, with no upper limit on size. Individual units can be as large as 50,000 CFM and units can be combined in parallel for treatment of any amount of air over 50,000 CFM.
RTO units are assembled in the fabrication shop to test for any fit & finish issues prior to being shipped to the field for installation. With modular build, field installation times are reduced and a high quality standard is consistently met.
TKS offers an experienced site team to install your new equipment: Skilled trades supervision, safety watch, and project managers.
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